Editorial Reviews. Review. 1. Introducing Social Psychology. 2. The Methods of Social Psychology. 3. Social Cognition: Thinking About People. 4. Social. , English, Book, Illustrated edition: Social psychology alive / Steven J. Breckler, James M. Developing a measure of a social psychological construct. Social Psychology Alive [With CDROM] book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. Steven Breckler, James Olson, and Elizabeth Wiggins w.
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ExampleTo make a well-informed decision about what college to attend, a person would talk to a number of persons and investigate all sorts of informa- tion e. The person would carefully consider all of these factors before making a deci- sion to attend a particular college. Peripheral routeThis route devotes little attention to the actual content of the message and tends to be affected by persuasion cues such as confidence, attractiveness, or other characteristics of the person delivering the message as important heuristic processing.
ExampleJessica Simpson endorsing a beauty product e. The elaboration likelihood model predicts that central route processing will occur only when the individual is motivated to analyze the message and is also able to process the message.
This route is likely when the message is person- ally relevant to the individual see college example above. When the message is complex, individuals tend to use peripheral route processing. The cognitive dissonance theory was proposed by Leon Festinger in Cognitive dissonance is the tension resulting from the lack of consistency in a persons attitudes or beliefs and behaviors. Consonant cognitions are consistent with one another Recycling is good for the environment and I have a recycling bin at home ; but dis- 16 sonant cognitions are inconsistent Recycling is good for the environment and I never recycle plastic bottles.
Cognitive dissonance generally occurs when the ABCs of attitudes are inconsistent. Dissonance causes aversive arousal, which Festinger thought we are motivated to reduce. We often bring our attitudes in line with our actions, when we are aware that our attitudes and actions dont coincide.
In other words we rationalize our behaviors. Dissonance can also be reduced by reducing the importance of the dissonant cognitions. However, it should be noted that none of the participants liked eating grasshop- pers.
Zimbardo and his colleagues were able to use an induced compliance paradigm to create cognitive dissonance between the thoughts grasshoppers are unacceptable foods to eat and I ate a grasshopper.
Fifty percent of the participants in both experimental conditions ate the grasshopper. Self-perception theoryBem said people infer their attitudes from their behav- ior.
This is most likely to happen when our internal attitudes are weak or ambiguous.
ExampleA man may attend a comedy club and be unsure if the comedian is offensive or funny. He will then reflect upon his behavior during the perform- ance to evaluate and create an opinion if he is laughing, he will infer that the comedian is funny. ExampleIf a student joins a socially active committee, he or she may con- sider himself or herself to be a good citizen. Conformity Conformity is following a groups standards, methods, or behavior as a result of unspo- ken group pressure, real or imagined e.
In a classic study by Solomon Asch normative influence , Asch had college students identify which of three lines on one card was the same length as a line on another card in the presence of others, who unbeknownst to the participant, were all in on the study. When other people gave the wrong answer before the participant replied, the participant was more likely to agree to give the incorrect answer.
Muzafer Sherif tested conformity to social norms, rules about what behaviors are proper or not proper. He was able to demonstrate that individuals conform to social norms in a study in which individuals announced the distance of perceived motion of a point of light in a darkened room this perceived motion is called the autokinetic effect.
While individual judgments varied widely when a person stated them alone, judgments of perceived movement converged when groups of two or three were presenting them.
Reasons for conformity 1. Normative social influence is a persons desire to gain group approval and avoid group disapproval e.
Asch tested willingness to comply with other subjects clearly wrong answers in his classic line study. ExampleIf all your friends are wearing their hair a certain way or wearing a certain type of clothing, you may start to do the same just to fit in, even if they do not say anything to you. Or, if someone tells a joke and everyone starts to laugh, you may notice that the others are laughing and then start to laugh yourself.
Informational social influence is a persons willingness to accept others opin- ions regarding reality e. ExampleOn certain political issues, an individual may side with someone who is well informed on politics of these issues e.
Cultural effectsSome cultures value conformity; others value individualism. For example, when Asians are asked to describe themselves, they often say that they are members of a village or a family, or partici- pants in certain clubs. Capitalistic societies often fit this model.
The United States is an individualistic culture. Even U. Individualistic cultures like the United States generate individuals who are more concerned with per- sonal opinion and personal gain.
Ambiguity of the situationpeople rely more on the opinions and behaviors of others in uncertain situations. ExampleWhen people are in a room and they see smoke, if other people 18 are around, they will probably check to see if others are alarmed. Individual differences exist with conformity. Individuals who are highly motivat- ed to achieve have high self-esteem, are less concerned with the approval of others, and are less likely to conform.
Conformity includes both compliance and obedience. Conformity refers to any behav- ior that occurs as a result of outside influence.
Compliance Compliance is obeying a direct request or giving in to overt social pressure. Those who agreed to make a small contribution to a political campaign or sign a petition showing support at one point in time were more likely than others to donate greater sums of money in the future. Because actions can fuel attitudes, acts following initial behavior can be easier to agree to. ExampleIf a young womans curfew is midnight and she asks her mother if she can stay out until a. If her mother does say yes, the next week the young woman may ask if she can stay out until a.
This also can be explained by self-perception process people infer their beliefs from their actions and by the desire for consistency to both be consistent and to appear consistent.
The door-in-the-face effect is if people are asked for a large favor first which they deny , they are more likely to comply with a subsequent smaller request. This can happen if a person first makes a request that most people say no to. If a person has already said no, but wants to be perceived positively, the person is more likely to say yes to a more reasonable request. The results of this effect can be explained by the norm of reciprocity we should return favors done to us : If the requestor has conceded his or her request, we can concede our initial denial.
See Activity 4. Obedience 19 Obedience is a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority.
In a classic study by Milgram , participants were instructed to administer shocks of increasing voltages to another participant every time the second participant made an error on a learning task. The second participant was collaborating in the study and did not actually receive any shocks. The actual participant could only hear the collaborating participants voice.
The shock machine had 30 switches, with shocks increasing from a slight shock to an extremely dangerous volts marked XXX. After a certain number of errors, the fake participant would start screaming and yelling that he wanted to be let out of the room. Participants would be told to continue with the shocks. Sixty-three percent of the male participants obeyed instructions all the way to administering the highest voltage.
Participants were more likely to administer shocks to the fake participant learner when an authority figure was nearby. Milgrams study was criticized for being unethical. Regulations are in place today to govern the treatment of human participants in research. Other examples of obedience are found in cults and propaganda.
A cult is a rigid group with a charismatic leader. Jonestown is an example of a cult.
In the late s, Jim Jones, a dynamic leader of the Peoples Temple cult, ordered his followers to commit mass suicide by drinking cyanide-laced Kool-Aid. A small minority refused to cooperate, but most went along with his orders and took their own lives. Social Psychology Alive. Toronto: Nelson, p Luce Company, Social psychology pages.
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